Tipos de cables

Tipos de cable coaxial

En las antiguas redes de área local bajo la norma 10Base2, prácticamente en desuso a fines de la década de 1990, se utilizaban dos tipos de cable coaxial: fino y grueso.

Se puede conseguir anchos de banda comprendidos entre corriente continua (Transportan modos TEM, que no tienen frecuencia de corte inferior) y más de 40 GHz, dependiendo del tipo de cable. Un ejemplo habitual de su uso para corriente continua es la alimentación de los amplificadores de antena, compartiendo el cable con la señal de RF.

Los cables coaxiales más comunes son el RG-58 (impedancia de 50 Ohm, fino) y el RG-59 (impedancia de 75 Ohm, fino). El primero es sumamente utilizado en equipos de radioaficionados y CB, el segundo entre las antenas Yagi de recepción de televisión, el televisor, y sobre todo en el transporte de señal de vídeo: compuesto, por componentes,RGB y otras como el SDI. Otro cable coaxial común es el denominado RG-6 mismo que utilizan las empresas de TV por cable (impedancia 60 Ohms).

En las aplicaciones de vídeo los coaxiales más utilizados son: RG59 / U, RG6 / U y RG11 / U.

En esta tabla podemos comparar los cables coaxiales mas comerciales y usados.

                   

Cable       Imped  Max Oper    O.D.                                          
Type        (Ohms)  Volts     Inches                 Remarks                               
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
RG-5B/U      50    3,000      .328      For replacement only, use RG-212/U
RG-6A/U      75    2,700      .332      None
RG-8A/U      52    5,000      .405      For replacement only, use RG-213/U
RG-9B/U      50    5,000      .420      For replacement only, use RG-214/U
RG-10A/U     52    5,000      .475      For replacement only, use RG-215/U
RG-11A/U     75    5,000      .405      None
RG-12A/U     75    5,000      .475      None
RG-13A/U     74    5,000      .420      For replacement only, use RG-216/U
RG-14A/U     52    7,000      .545      For replacement only, use RG-217/U
RG-15/U      76    5,000      .545      None
RG-16/U      52    6,000      .630      None
RG-18A/U     52   11,000      .945      For replacement only, use RG-219/U
RG-19A/U     52   14,000     1.120      For replacement only, use RG-220/U
RG-20A/U     52   14,000     1.195      For replacement only, use RG-221/U
RG-21A/U     53    2,700      .332      For replacement only, use RG-222/U
RG-22B/U     95    1,000      .420      Balanced cable twisted conductors
RG-23A/U    125    3,000      .945      Dual coaxial cable
RG-24A/U    125    3,000     1.034      Dual coaxial cable
RG-25A/U     48    8,000      .505      Pulse cable
RG-26A/U     48    8,000      .650      Pulse cable
RG-27A/U     48   15,000      .650      High voltage pulse cable
RG-28B/U     48   15,000      .750      High voltage pulse cable
RG-33/U      51    6,000      .470      None
RG-34B/U     75    6,500      .630      None
RG-35B/U     75   10,000      .945      None
RG-36/U      69   13,000     1.180      None
RG-41/U      67.5  3,000      .425      None
RG-54A/U     58    3,000      .250      None
RG-55B/U     53    1,900      .206      None
RG-56/U      --      --       .535      Special twisted pulse cable
RG-57A/U     95    3,000      .625      Twin conductor
RG-58C/U     50    1,900      .195      General purpose
RG-59B/U     75    2,300      .242      General purpose
RG-60/U      50      --       .425      None
RG-62A/U     93      --       .249      None
RG-62B/U     93      750      .242      None
RG-63B/U    125    1,000      .405      Low capacitance
RG-64/U      48      --       .495      Pulse
RG-65A/U    950    1,000      .405      High impedance delay line, video cable
RG-71B/U     93      750      .250      None
RG-72/U     150      --       .630      None
RG-73/U      25      --       .275      None
RG-74A/U     52    7,000      .615      For replacement only, use RG-224/U
RG-77A/U     48    8,000      .450      Pulse cable
RG-78A/U     48    8,000      .420      Same as RG-74A/U except single braid
RG-79B/U    125    1,000      .475      RG-63B/U with armor
RG-81/U      50    3,000      .375      Semi-Rigid high temperature cable
RG-82/U      50    5,000      .750      Same as RG-81/U
RG-83/U      35    2,000      .405      None
RG-84A/U     75   10,000     1.000      RG-35B/U with lead sheath, not armor
RG-85A/U     75   10,000     1.565      RG-84A/U with special armor
RG-86/U     200      --       .650      Twin lead
RG-87A/U     50    5,000      .425      For replacement only. New, use RG-225/U
RG-88/U      50    8,000      .515      Pulse
RG-88A/U     50    8,000      .515      None
RG-88B/U     50   10,000      .565      None
RG-89/U     125    1,000      .632      Low capacitance
RG-90/U      50    3,000      .425      Carrier Frequency Communication
RG-93/U      50   10,000      .710      Replaced with RG-117/U
RG-94/U      50    7,000      .445      For replacement only. New, use RG-226/U
RG-100/U     35    2,000      .242      None
RG-108A/U    78    1,000      .235      Shielded twisted pair
RG-111A/U    95    1,000      .490      none
RG-114A/U   185    1,000      .405      Special low capacitance
RG-115/U     50    4,000      .375      None
RG-115A/U    50    4,000      .415      None
RG-116/U     50    5,000      .475      For replacement only. New, use RG-227/U
RG-117A/U    50    7,000      .730      Same as RG-117/U. New, use RG-211A/U
RG-118A/U    50    7,000      .780      Same as RG-118/U. New, use RG-228A/U
RG-119/U     50    6,000      .465      High temperature cable
RG-120/U     50    6,000      .525      Same as RG-119/U, with armor
RG-122/U     50    1,900      .160      Same as RG-58/U except smaller in size
RG-124/U     73    2,300      .240      Replaced by RG-140/U
RG-125/U    150    2,000      .600      Special low capacitance
RG-126/U     50    3,000      .280      High attenuation same as RG-301/U
RG-130/U     95    8,000      .625      Same as RG-57A/U except inner conductor
RG-131/U     95    8,000      .710      Same as RG-130/U except  for armor
RG-133A/U    95    4,000      .405      NATO type NWR7
RG-140/U     75    2,000      .233      High temperature, similar to RG-59A/U
RG-141A/U    50    1,900      .190      High temperature, similar to RG-58C/U
RG-142A/U    50    1,900      .206      High temperature, similar to RG-55A/U
RG-142B/U    50      --       .195      Same as above
RG-143A/U    50    3,000      .325      High temperature, similar to RG-58/U
RG-144/U     75    5,000      .410      High temperature, similar to RG-11/U
RG-147/U     52   14,000     1.937      RG-19/U with armor
RG-148/U     72    4,000      .800      RG-8/U with spiral armor
RG-149/U     52    5,000      .405      Low noise
RG-150/U     75    5,000      .475      Same as RG-149/U except armored
RG-156/U     50   10,000      .540      Taped innerlayers 1 type K&1 type A-1R
RG-157/U     50   15,000      .725      Betw 2n braid of outer conductor & braided
RG-158/U     25   15,000      .725      Tinned copper shield pulse cable
RG-159/U     50    2,300      .195      Replaced by RG-142/U
RG-160A/U   125    3,000     1.055      Same as RG-160/U except copper braid
RG-164/U     75   10,000      .870      Same as RG-35B/U except armored
RG-165/U     50    5,000      .410      None
RG-166/U     50    5,000      .460      Same as RG-165/U except armored
RG-174/U     50    1,500      .100      None
RG-177/U     50   11,000      .895      None
RG-178B/U    50    1,000      .075      None
RG-179B/U    75    1,200      .105      None
RG-180B/U    95    1,500      .145      none
RG-181/U    125    3,500      .640      None
RG-182/U    125    2,300     1.055      Special dual twinax
RG-183/U     50      --       .750      None
RG-185/U   2000      --       .282      Delay cable
RG-186/U   1000      --       .405      Delay cable
RG-187A/U    75    1,200      .110      Same as RG-187/U except inner conductor
RG-188A/U    50    1,200      .110      Same as RG-188/U except inner conductor
RG-189/U     50    3,500      .875      7/8 in stroflux cable
RG-190/U     50   15,000      .700      Taped inner layers: 2 wraps of type K
RG-191/U     25   15,000     1.469      & 2 wraps of type L between outer braid
RG-192/U     12.5 15,000     2.200      Pulse cable
RG-193/U     12.5 30,000     2.100      Pulse cable
RG-194/U     12.5 30,000     1.945      Pulse cable
RG-195A/U    95    1,500      .155      Same as RG-195/U except inner conductor
RG-196A/U    50    1,000      .080      Same as RG-196/U except inner conductor
RG-197/U     50      --       .875      None
RG-199/U     70      --      1.015      None
RG-200/U     70      --      1.765      None
RG-209/U     50    3,200      .750      None
RG-210/U     93      750      .242      Replaces RG-62C/U
RG-211A/U    50    7,000      .730      Same as RG-211/U except braid wire size
RG-212/U     50    3,000      .332      Formerly RG-58/U
RG-213/U     50    5,000      .405      Formerly RG-8A/U
RG-214/U     50    5,000      .425      Formerly RG-9B/U
RG-215/U     50    5,000      .475      Formerly RG-10A/U
RG-216/U     75    5,000      .425      Formerly RG-13A/U
RG-217/U     50    7,000      .545      Formerly RG-144A/U
RG-218/U     50   11,000      .870      Formerly RG-17A/U
RG-219/U     50   11,000      .945      Formerly RG-18A/U
RG-220/U     50   14,000     1.120      Formerly RG-19A/U
RG-221/U     50   14,000     1.195      Formerly RG-20A/U
RG-222/U     50    2,700      .332      Formerly RG-21A/U
RG-223/U     50    1,900      .216      Formerly RG-55A/U
RG-224/U     50    7,000      .615      Formerly RG-74A/U
RG-225/U     50    5,000      .430      Formerly RG-87A/U
RG-226/U     50    7,000      .500      Formerly RG-94A/U
RG-227/U     50    5,000      .490      Formerly RG-116/U
RG-228A/U    50    7,000      .795      Same as RG-228/U except wire size
RG-230/U     25      --       .740      Triaxial pulse cable
RG-231/U     50      --       .500      None
RG-232/U     50      --      1.050      None
RG-233/U     50      --      1.765      None
RG-234/U     50      --      3.295      None
RG-235/U     50    5,000      .470      None
RG-236/U     50      --       .500      None
RG-237/U     50      --       .600      None
RG-240/U     50      --      1.625      None
RG-242/U     50      --      3.125      None
RG-244/U     75      --       .500      None
RG-245/U     75      --       .600      None
RG-246/U     75      --       .875      None
RG-247/U     75      --      1.015      None
RG-248/U     75      --      1.625      None
RG-249/U     75      --      1.765      None
RG-259/U     75      --      3.125      None
RG-251/U     75      --      3.295      None
RG-252/U     50      --       .530      None
RG-253/U     50      --       .635      None
RG-254/U     50      --      1.100      None
RG-255/U     50      --       .953      None
RG-256/U     50      --       .953      None
RG-257/U     50      --      1.786      None
RG-258/U     50      --      1.936      None
RG-259/U     50      --       .390      None
RG-263/U     50      --       .500      None
RG-264A/U    36.8    --       .750      Same as RG-264/U except low temperature
RG-266/U   1530   4,000       .400      Delay cable
RG-268/U     50      --       .500      None
RG-269/U     50      --      1.005      None
RG-270/U     50      --      1.830      None
RG-279/U     75      --       .125      None
RG-280/U     50   3,000       .467      For low loss and low voltage application
RG-281/U     50   4,000       .750      For low loss and low voltage application
RG-282/U     54.6 4,500       .200      For 150 degree [C] operation
RG-283/U     46   8,000       .475      For 150 degree [C] operation
RG-284/U     75      --      1.005      None
RG-285/U    100      --      1.005      None
RG-286/U     75      --      1.830      None
RG-287/U    100      --      1.830      None
RG-292/U     75      --      1.830      none
RG-293/U     50      --       .545      None
RG-294/U     95      --       .630      Twin Axial
RG-295/U     --      --       .895      None
RG-296/U     50  10,000      1.190      None
RG-297/U     50      --      1.005      None
RG-298/U     --      --       .650      unshielded buoyant cable
RG-301/U     50   3,000       .245      Similar to RG-126/U
RG-302/U     75   2,300       .206      Similar to RG-140/U
RG-303/U     50   1,900       .170      Similar to RG-141/U
RG-304/U     50   3,000       .280      Similar to RG-143A/U
RG-305/U     75      --      1.990      None
RG-306A/U    75      --      1.015      None
RG-307/U     75     400       .270      Interlayer is polyvinyl chloride
RG-316/U     50   1,200        --       High temperature similar to RG-188A/U
RG-318/U     50      --      1.100      None
RG-319A/U    50      --      2.000      None
RG-321/U     50      --      2.850      None
RG-322/U     50      --      3.040      None
RG-323/U     50      --      1.060      None
RG-324/U     50      --       .980      None
RG-325/U     50      --       .465      None
RG-326/U     50      --       .779      None
RG-327/U     50      --      1.180      None
RG-331/U     50      --       .625      None
RG-332/U     50      --       .815      None
RG-333/U     50      --      1.052      None
RG-334/U     75      --       .500      None
RG-335/U     75      --       .625      None
RG-336/U     75      --       .875      None
RG-360/U     50      --       .825      None
RG-366/U     50      --       .620      None
RG-367/U     50      --      5.200      Very large cable
RG-369/U     50      --       .470      None
RG-370/U     50      --       .390      None
RG-371/U     50      --       .140      None
RG-376/U     50      --      1.060      None
RG-377/U     50      --       .530      None
RG-378/U     50      --      2.000      None
RG-382/U     50      --      1.620      None
RG-385/U     50      --       .660      None

Para que utilizar el cable coaxial

Cable coaxial

Cable coaxial

El cable coaxial es un tipo de cable muy usado en electrónica que tiene como misión llevar señales de audio, vídeo y radiofrecuencia. Esta compuesto por una malla exterior formada por un entramado de finos cables y un cable interior separado por un aislante. Este tipo de montaje hace que el cable sea asimetrico y con unas impedancias usuales de 50, 75 y 93 ohmios.

El cable coaxial es exclusivo para electrónica no se debe utilizar nunca para instalaciones eléctricas domesticas, para ellas existen otros tipos de cables como los unifilares y de manguera.

El cable coaxial lo podemos ver por ejemplo en la toma de antena del televisor, en amplificadores de sonido para la conexión de un microfono u otro aparato que nos proporcione una señal sonora.

La principal ventaja de trabajar con este tipo de cables es que pueden llevar señales muy débiles sin que el ruido exterior las afecte.